From Achilles to Jesus, the graeco-christian paideia on internal opposition (to corrupted Kings & Pharisees) precedes any “western democracy”. That’s why “Muslim democracy” is an oxymoron. Not the fault of Erdogan. Muslim culture is not based on models of INTERNAL OPPOSITION.
That’s why distinguishing between Objection & Disrespect was in the Core of western education, the fine line between liberty and tyranny. Older thread.
That’s why left-wing progressive regimes eradicate classical education from primary education (no Achilles, no Jesus). They share common core values with muslim regimes & pharisees: zero tolerance to internal objection.
The same theme is repeated in history again and again. From the christian objection to classic Roman authority to Protestant objection to Roman Catholic authority. Same root: return to the ancient texts. For the illiterate black slaves, it was the “trope of the talking book”